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茅于轼:价格双轨制导致"官倒"问题出现

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月23日 21:57:08
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(独)(家)(对)(话)(茅)(于)(轼)(:国)(企)(不)(与)(政)(府)(脱)(钩)(有)(混)(合)(所)(有)(制)(也)(是)(没)(用)(的)(
  1984年)(,以)(价)(格)(双)(轨)(制)(为)(代)(表)(的)(一)(系)(列)(经)(济)(改)(革)(,从)(莫)(干)(山)(上)(走)(向)(全)(国)(,并)(深)(刻)(影)(响)(了)(这)(个)(国)(家)(此)(后)(30年)(的)(发)(展)(。柳)(传)(志)(、张)(瑞)(敏)(、王)(石)(,在)(这)(一)(年)(投)(身)(商)(海)(,用)(创)(业)(的)(方)(式)(践)(行)(他)(们)(的)(改)(革)(梦)(想)(。这)(告)(诉)(我)(们)(,改)(革)(,需)(要)(身)(体)(力)(行)(。2014年)(6月)(21日)(,搜)(狐)(财)(经)(、人)(文)(经)(济)(学)(会)(、北)(京)(大)(学)(国)(家)(发)(展)(研)(究)(院)(联)(合)(主)(办)(《莫)(干)(山)(:1984的)(创)(新)(和)(动)(力)(——2014搜)(狐)(财)(经)(夏)(季)(峰)(会)("》,邀)(请)(茅)(于)(轼)(、周)(其)(仁)(、张)(维)(迎)(、陈)(志)(武)(、姚)(洋)(、卢)(锋)(、刘)(永)(好)(、梁)(建)(章)(等)(著)(名)(经)(济)(学)(家)(、企)(业)(家)(,再)(度)(对)(中)(国)(改)(革)(做)(最)(大)(胆)(建)(言)(。
  在)(主)(题)(为)(“思)(想)(市)(场)(与)(改)(革)(动)(力)(”的)(分)(论)(坛)(上)(,茅)(于)(轼)(表)(示)(,双)(轨)(引)(发)(了)(什)(么)(问)(题)(,就)(是)(官)(倒)(。在)(国)(有)(制)(的)(企)(业)(中)(,承)(包)(规)(定)(的)(生)(产)(任)(务)(按)(照)(计)(划)(价)(,超)(产)(部)(分)(按)(照)(市)(场)(价)(。市)(场)(价)(比)(较)(高)(,市)(场)(价)(普)(遍)(高)(于)(计)(划)(价)(,所)(以)(将)(计)(划)(内)(的)(产)(品)(改)(换)(成)(市)(场)(产)(品)(,可)(以)(获)(得)(溢)(价)(利)(益)(,官)(倒)(的)(出)(现)(提)(出)(了)(双)(轨)(如)(何)(并)(轨)(的)(问)(题)(。这)(是)(莫)(干)(山)(会)(议)(没)(有)(想)(到)(的)(,双)(轨)(的)(问)(题)(一)(直)(延)(续)(至)(今)(。
  以)(下)(是)(文)(字)(实)(录)(:
  茅)(于)(轼)(:今)(天)(这)(个)(会)(是)(回)(顾)(中)(国)(改)(革)(30年)(的)(回)(顾)(,我)(们)(要)(实)(践)(,我)(们)(生)(活)(在)(实)(践)(里)(面)(,我)(们)(受)(到)(了)(不)(断)(启)(发)(,追)(求)(改)(善)(当)(时)(的)(生)(活)(。思)(想)(非)(常)(活)(跃)(,改)(革)(开)(放)(30年)(有)(一)(切)(思)(想)(的)(解)(放)(,大)(家)(非)(常)(高)(兴)(,特)(别)(是)(新)(一)(届)(青)(年)(人)(大)(展)(宏)(图)(。
  追)(求)(改)(善)(生)(活)(,不)(需)(要)(空)(喊)(口)(号)(,不)(需)(要)(政)(治)(挂)(帅)(。大)(家)(知)(道)(,农)(村)(承)(包)(制)(推)(广)(以)(后)(,大)(家)(基)(本)(上)(吃)(饱)(饭)(了)(。所)(以)(,当)(时)(大)(家)(有)(一)(个)(想)(法)(就)(是)(把)(农)(村)(的)(承)(包)(经)(验)(移)(植)(到)(城)(市)(中)(来)(,但)(是)(承)(包)(经)(验)(是)("不)(吃)(大)(锅)(饭)(",承)(包)(是)(投)(资)(多)(少)(产)(出)(多)(少)(,产)(出)(多)(就)(是)(你)(的)(利)(润)(。
  大)(家)(有)(一)(个)(共)(识)(,就)(是)(要)(改)(善)(,怎)(么)(改)(?国)(家)(发)(改)(委)(主)(导)(思)(想)(是)(成)(本)(定)(价)(,到)(底)(以)(什)(么)(为)(成)(本)(?经)(济)(学)(告)(诉)(我)(们)(,成)(本)(是)(变)(化)(的)(,价)(格)(取)(决)(于)(边)(际)(成)(本)(,边)(际)(成)(本)(是)(由)(需)(求)(决)(定)(的)(。由)(于)(需)(求)(无)(法)(调)(查)(,成)(本)(定)(价)(无)(法)(实)(施)(,调)(查)(得)(出)(只)(能)(平)(均)(成)(本)(,它)(永)(远)(是)(小)(于)(边)(际)(成)(本)(。
  为)(什)(么)(价)(格)(改)(革)(很)(困)(难)(?因)(为)(计)(划)(价)(都)(低)(于)(平)(衡)(价)(,它)(与)(低)(工)(资)(相)(适)(应)(,衣)(服)(都)(是)(很)(低)(的)(。这)(么)(低)(的)(价)(,当)(时)(低)(工)(资)(是)(在)(内)(的)(,但)(是)(计)(划)(供)(应)(数)(量)(都)(不)(行)(。中)(国)(是)(计)(划)(供)(应)(必)(须)(要)(引)(进)(市)(场)(,城)(市)(人)(口)(都)(享)(受)(计)(划)(价)(,不)(能)(低)(于)(市)(场)(价)(,高)(于)(计)(划)(价)(。
  僵)(持)(中)(提)(出)(了)(双)(轨)(价)(格)(制)(:这)(个)(是)(什)(么)(?原)(来)(市)(场)(价)(不)(变)(,我)(们)(为)(了)(应)(对)(市)(场)(,市)(场)(价)(格)(是)(自)(由)(的)(。这)(个)(建)(议)(实)(际)(是)(一)(个)(社)(会)(主)(义)(制)(度)(人)(镜)(合)(一)(,市)(场)(价)(格)(没)(有)(人)(反)(对)(,双)(轨)(制)(的)(设)(想)(是)(计)(划)(价)(系)(统)(不)(变)(,另)(外)(开)(铺)(自)(由)(市)(场)(价)(,双)(轨)(制)(不)(损)(失)(任)(何)(人)(,对)(一)(部)(分)(人)(有)(益)(,推)(行)(双)(轨)(制)(阻)(力)(较)(小)(,没)(有)(理)(由)(反)(对)(。双)(轨)(制)(很)(快)(推)(行)(到)(各)(行)(各)(业)(,至)(今)(双)(轨)(制)(还)(在)(实)(行)(。
  双)(轨)(这)(个)(东)(西)(到)(现)(在)(还)(有)(,双)(轨)(制)(在)(中)(国)(可)(以)(很)(顺)(利)(的)(进)(行)(,跟)(俄)(罗)(斯)(相)(比)(,改)(革)(一)(路)(高)(歌)(猛)(进)(,没)(有)(停)(滞)(,更)(没)(有)(倒)(退)(,这)(和)(双)(轨)(制)(价)(格)(的)(实)(施)(有)(关)(。由)(于)(计)(划)(商)(品)(的)(数)(量)(越)(来)(越)(少)(,逐)(渐)(被)(市)(场)(价)(所)(替)(代)(。但)(是)(也)(有)(一)(部)(分)(计)(划)(价)(一)(直)(保)(留)(,如)(股)(票)(市)(场)(里)(的)(国)(有)(和)(流)(通)(股)(。
  双)(轨)(引)(发)(了)(什)(么)(问)(题)(,就)(是)(官)(倒)(。在)(国)(有)(制)(的)(企)(业)(中)(,承)(包)(规)(定)(的)(生)(产)(任)(务)(按)(照)(计)(划)(价)(,超)(产)(部)(分)(按)(照)(市)(场)(价)(。市)(场)(价)(比)(较)(高)(,普)(遍)(高)(于)(计)(划)(价)(,所)(以)(将)(计)(划)(内)(的)(产)(品)(改)(换)(成)(市)(场)(产)(品)(,可)(以)(获)(得)(溢)(价)(利)(益)(,官)(倒)(的)(出)(现)(提)(出)(了)(双)(轨)(如)(何)(并)(轨)(的)(问)(题)(。这)(是)(莫)(干)(山)(会)(议)(没)(有)(想)(到)(的)(,双)(轨)(的)(问)(题)(一)(直)(延)(续)(至)(今)(。
  所)(有)(权)(和)(价)(格)(改)(革)(:双)(轨)(价)(格)(制)(允)(许)(自)(由)(市)(场)(的)(存)(在)(,事)(实)(上)(这)(是)(对)(私)(营)(业)(主)(的)(承)(认)(。当)(时)(中)(国)(没)(有)(富)(人)(,谁)(也)(办)(不)(起)(哪)(怕)(是)(一)(个)(小)(企)(业)(,有)(的)(是)(单)(干)(户)(,比)(如)(买)(猪)(肉)(,尽)(管)(是)(单)(干)(户)(讨)(价)(还)(价)(形)(成)(一)(个)(市)(场)(价)(。最)(近)(调)(研)(市)(场)(价)(给)(我)(们)(一)(个)(参)(考)(,如)(居)(民)(的)(副)(食)(品)(,国)(家)(发)(放)(涨)(价)(补)(贴)(,每)(个)(月)(好)(象)(是)(7元)(,城)(市)(户)(口)(可)(以)(每)(个)(月)(拿)(着)(户)(口)(本)(领)(涨)(价)(补)(贴)(。这)(就)(说)(明)(自)(由)(市)(场)(的)(价)(格)(跟)(市)(场)(价)(有)(引)(导)(的)(方)(向)(。
  明)(确)(财)(产)(的)(所)(有)(权)(才)(能)(决)(定)(正)(确)(的)(价)(格)(:科)(斯)(和)(诺)(斯)(都)(强)(调)(所)(有)(权)(的)(重)(要)(性)(,他)(们)(都)(非)(常)(强)(调)(产)(值)(这)(个)(东)(西)(,科)(斯)(是)(在)(1991年)(获)(得)(诺)(贝)(尔)(学)(奖)(,诺)(斯)(是)(1993年)(获)(得)(诺)(贝)(尔)(学)(奖)(。后)(来)(很)(多)(事)(迹)(证)(明)(中)(国)(的)(价)(格)(改)(革)(大)(范)(围)(成)(功)(,是)(由)(于)(1994年)(之)(后)(大)(量)(私)(营)(企)(业)(的)(产)(生)(,只)(有)(在)(广)(大)(私)(营)(企)(业)(中)(间)(才)(能)(产)(生)(出)(正)(确)(的)(道)(路)(。
  不)(管)(中)(国)(、东)(方)(、西)(方)(,也)(不)(管)(将)(来)(100年)(以)(后)(,正)(确)(的)(价)(格)(是)(需)(要)(的)(,所)(以)(我)(们)(叫)(价)(格)(万)(岁)(。首)(先)(出)(现)(价)(格)(必)(须)(明)(确)(产)(权)(,所)(以)(公)(有)(制)(不)(能)(产)(生)(正)(确)(的)(价)(值)(,由)(于)(价)(格)(扭)(曲)(,市)(场)(就)(做)(不)(了)(。
  公)(有)(制)(企)(业)(在)(价)(格)(上)(搭)(私)(企)(的)(便)(车)(,公)(有)(制)(企)(业)(可)(以)(利)(用)(私)(企)(所)(创)(造)(的)(合)(理)(价)(格)(,作)(出)(有)(效)(的)(决)(策)(。全)(国)(的)(公)(有)(制)(下)(不)(可)(能)(产)(生)(出)(合)(理)(的)(价)(格)(,价)(格)(是)(交)(换)(的)(结)(果)(,交)(易)(费)(用)(是)(生)(产)(价)(格)(信)(号)(的)(成)(本)(。
  莫)(干)(山)(会)(议)(后)(对)(价)(格)(理)(论)(的)(总)(结)(,任)(何)(一)(个)(社)(会)(都)(必)(须)(有)(一)(个)(均)(衡)(的)(价)(格)(系)(统)(,这)(个)(系)(统)(能)(使)(一)(切)(买)(卖)(畅)(通)(无)(阻)(,利)(用)(这)(个)(价)(格)(系)(统)(所)(做)(的)(经)(济)(决)(策)(是)(不)(会)(发)(生)(错)(误)(的)(,生)(产)(这)(样)(的)(价)(格)(系)(统)(必)(须)(建)(立)(在)(产)(权)(明)(确)(的)(基)(础)(上)(。
  谢)(谢)(大)(家)(。
独)(家)(声)(明)(:搜)(狐)(财)(经)(独)(家)(稿)(件)(,版)(权)(所)(有)(,请)(勿)(转)(载)(,违)(者)(必)(究)(。如)(确)(需)(使)(用)(稿)(件)(或)(者)(更)(多)(资)(料)(,请)(与)(我)(们)(联)(系)(获)(得)(授)(权)(,注)(明)(版)(权)(信)(息)(方)(可)(转)(载)(。联)(系)(我)(们)(可)(致)(电)(010-62726118。
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