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进口博览会,我们可以关注什么?

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月23日 22:31:13
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(开)(放)(度)(不)(足)(,是)(我)(国)(金)(融)(保)(险)(服)(务)(、信)(息)(化)(服)(务)(进)(口)(占)(比)(低)(的)(主)(要)(原)(因)(。以)(金)(融)(保)(险)(业)(为)(例)(,我)(国)(金)(融)(保)(险)(服)(务)(和)(信)(息)(化)(服)(务)(领)(域)(,贸)(易)(限)(制)(指)(数)(远)(远)(高)(于)(英)(、美)(、日)(、韩)(等)(发)(达)(国)(家)(,国)(际)(化)(水)(平)(极)(低)(。此)(外)(,我)(国)(是)(国)(际)(上)(为)(数)(不)(多)(的)(,在)(银)(行)(、证)(券)(、保)(险)(各)(行)(业)(均)(存)(在)(外)(资)(持)(股)(比)(例)(限)(制)(的)(国)(家)(,外)(资)(机)(构)(资)(产)(占)(银)(行)(业)(总)(资)(产)(比)(重)(长)(期)(低)(于)(10%。具)(体)(来)(看)(,2018年)(以)(前)(我)(国)(在)(金)(融)(保)(险)(服)(务)(领)(域)(市)(场)(准)(入)(、持)(股)(比)(例)(、设)(立)(形)(式)(等)(方)(面)(保)(留)(若)(干)(限)(制)(,包)(括)(银)(行)(业)(外)(资)(持)(股)(比)(例)(不)(得)(超)(过)(20%等)(;电)(信)(服)(务)(行)(业)(开)(放)(度)(也)(相)(对)(较)(低)(。
发)(达)(国)(家)(出)(口)(限)(制)(,约)(束)(我)(国)(先)(进)(技)(术)(及)(设)(备)(进)(口)(增)(长)(
先)(进)(技)(术)(、知)(识)(产)(权)(是)(我)(国)(经)(济)(发)(展)(急)(需)(的)(高)(附)(加)(值)(生)(产)(性)(服)(务)(,但)(近)(年)(来)(进)(口)(占)(比)(远)(低)(于)(全)(球)(平)(均)(水)(平)(。除)(了)(传)(统)(服)(务)(及)(金)(融)(保)(险)(等)(服)(务)(之)(外)(,知)(识)(产)(权)(、专)(业)(服)(务)(、文)(娱)(服)(务)(等)(占)(我)(国)(服)(务)(进)(口)(总)(额)(的)(17%,其)(中)(专)(业)(服)(务)(和)(知)(识)(产)(权)(使)(用)(费)(为)(主)(要)(内)(容)(。但)(是)(,国)(际)(比)(较)(来)(看)(,我)(国)(这)(两)(项)(服)(务)(占)(比)(,远)(低)(于)(全)(球)(平)(均)(。其)(中)(,前)(者)(以)(法)(律)(、会)(计)(等)(为)(主)(,进)(口)(占)(比)(较)(低)(或)(与)(不)(同)(国)(家)(法)(律)(、会)(计)(体)(系)(客)(观)(差)(异)(有)(关)(;以)(专)(利)(、特)(许)(服)(务)(等)(为)(主)(要)(内)(容)(的)(知)(识)(产)(权)(使)(用)(费)(进)(口)(占)(比)(较)(低)(,或)(缘)(于)(部)(分)(发)(达)(国)(家)(出)(口)(限)(制)(。
美)(、日)(、韩)(等)(发)(达)(经)(济)(体)(,是)(我)(国)(先)(进)(技)(术)(服)(务)(进)(口)(的)(主)(要)(来)(源)(国)(,其)(尖)(端)(技)(术)(等)(出)(口)(管)(制)(,严)(重)(制)(约)(了)(我)(国)(相)(关)(服)(务)(进)(口)(。美)(、日)(、韩)(等)(是)(我)(国)(知)(识)(产)(权)(使)(用)(服)(务)(进)(口)(的)(主)(要)(来)(源)(,其)(中)(美)(国)(、日)(本)(进)(口)(占)(比)(过)(半)(,对)(我)(国)(先)(进)(技)(术)(服)(务)(进)(口)(影)(响)(较)(大)(。早)(在)(1996年)(,美)(、日)(、英)(等)(40个)(成)(员)(国)(签)(订)(《瓦)(森)(纳)(协)(定)(》,对)(成)(员)(国)(向)(非)(协)(定)(成)(员)(国)(出)(口)(军)(事)(武)(器)(装)(备)(、尖)(端)(技)(术)(产)(品)(和)(稀)(有)(物)(资)(等)(产)(品)(的)(行)(为)(进)(行)(管)(制)(。在)(此)(基)(础)(上)(,美)(国)(BIS制)(定)(《商)(业)(管)(制)(目)(录)(》,涉)(及)(电)(子)(、计)(算)(机)(、通)(信)(等)(十)(大)(行)(业)(,其)(中)(对)(中)(国)(的)(禁)(运)(清)(单)(包)(含)(超)(过)(200个)(商)(品)(项)(目)(,严)(重)(制)(约)(了)(我)(国)(先)(进)(技)(术)(、知)(识)(产)(权)(等)(服)(务)(的)(进)(口)(。
转)(型)(逻)(辑)(下)(,先)(进)(技)(术)(和)(消)(费)(或)(是)(扩)(大)(进)(口)(重)(点)(
我)(国)(处)(于)(相)(对)(弱)(势)(的)(核)(心)(技)(术)(和)(关)(键)(设)(备)((集)(成)(电)(路)(、航)(空)(航)(天)(等)(),优)(质)(居)(民)(消)(费)(品)(,或)(是)(扩)(大)(进)(口)(的)(重)(点)(领)(域)(。此)(外)(,国)(内)(短)(缺)(的)(油)(气)(能)(源)(及)(战)(略)(矿)(产)(资)(源)(、土)(地)(密)(集)(型)(农)(产)(品)(,也)(存)(在)(扩)(大)(进)(口)(需)(求)(。
先)(进)(技)(术)(及)(设)(备)(、优)(质)(消)(费)(是)(重)(点)(领)(域)(,助)(力)(加)(速)(转)(型)(
核)(心)(技)(术)(、设)(备)(扩)(大)(进)(口)(,激)(发)(自)(主)(创)(新)(、技)(改)(升)(级)(
我)(国)(半)(导)(体)(、系)(统)(软)(件)(、航)(空)(等)(核)(心)(技)(术)(,与)(发)(达)(国)(家)(仍)(存)(在)(明)(显)(差)(距)(。伴)(随)(经)(济)(快)(速)(发)(展)(和)(研)(发)(投)(入)(增)(长)(,我)(国)(铁)(路)(、高)(铁)(、家)(电)(等)(领)(域)(,技)(术)(水)(平)(已)(在)(全)(球)(居)(于)(领)(先)(地)(位)(,但)(在)(半)(导)(体)(、生)(物)(技)(术)(、医)(药)(研)(发)(、系)(统)(软)(件)(、航)(空)(等)(前)(沿)(技)(术)(领)(域)(,与)(发)(达)(国)(家)(存)(在)(较)(大)(差)(距)(,这)(与)(我)(国)(基)(础)(研)(发)(能)(力)(相)(对)(不)(足)(存)(在)(一)(定)(关)(联)(。从)(研)(发)(经)(费)(流)(向)(也)(可)(以)(观)(察)(到)(一)(些)(迹)(象)(:2016年)(我)(国)(95%的)(研)(发)(经)(费)(用)(于)(已)(有)(技)(术)(的)(商)(业)(开)(发)(和)(应)(用)(科)(学)(研)(究)(,仅)(5%于)(基)(础)(研)(究)(,远)(低)(于)(美)(国)((17%)、法)(国)((24%)、韩)(国)((17%)、英)(国)((17%)、日)(本)((12%)。核)(心)(技)(术)(发)(展)(不)(足)(,使)(得)(我)(国)(部)(分)(核)(心)(零)(部)(件)(大)(量)(依)(赖)(进)(口)(,例)(如)(集)(成)(电)(路)(连)(续)(数)(年)(成)(为)(我)(国)(第)(一)(大)(进)(口)(商)(品)(。
结)(合)(我)(国)(转)(型)(需)(求)(与)(政)(策)(导)(向)(来)(看)(,“先)(进)(制)(造)(”十)(大)(重)(点)(领)(域)(、以)(及)(传)(统)(产)(业)(技)(改)(升)(级)(相)(关)(领)(域)(,或)(是)(我)(国)(先)(进)(技)(术)(、关)(键)(设)(备)(和)(零)(部)(件)(扩)(大)(进)(口)(的)(重)(点)(领)(域)(。我)(国)(产)(业)(转)(型)(升)(级)(的)(大)(体)(路)(径)(是)(:一)(方)(面)(加)(快)(核)(心)(设)(备)(和)(技)(术)(的)(突)(破)(创)(新)(、促)(进)(先)(进)(制)(造)(行)(业)(发)(展)(,另)(一)(方)(面)(通)(过)(技)(改)(升)(级)(稳)(定)(传)(统)(制)(造)(业)(优)(势)(。发)(改)(委)(等)(部)(委)(公)(布)(的)(《鼓)(励)(进)(口)(技)(术)(与)(产)(品)(清)(单)((2017版)()》中)(,鼓)(励)(进)(口)(的)(重)(点)(也)(向)(先)(进)(制)(造)(领)(域)(、以)(及)(传)(统)(制)(造)(业)(技)(改)(升)(级)(的)(方)(向)(倾)(斜)(。具)(体)(来)(看)(,信)(息)(技)(术)((集)(成)(电)(路)(和)(新)(型)(显)(示)()、智)(能)(制)(造)((精)(密)(数)(控)(机)(床)()、航)(空)(航)(天)(、汽)(车)(和)(船)(舶)(制)(造)(、生)(物)(技)(术)(等)(高)(技)(术)(领)(域)(,以)(及)(促)(进)(传)(统)(产)(业)(技)(改)(升)(级)(的)(节)(能)(、降)(耗)(、环)(保)(等)(领)(域)(,或)(是)(扩)(大)(先)(进)(技)(术)(和)(关)(键)(设)(备)(进)(口)(的)(重)(点)(领)(域)(。
优)(质)(日)(用)(品)(、医)(药)(需)(求)(强)(劲)(,扩)(大)(进)(口)(引)(导)(供)(给)(提)(质)(
今)(年)(我)(国)(居)(民)(消)(费)(升)(级)(需)(求)(日)(益)(凸)(显)(,其)(中)(化)(妆)(品)(、母)(婴)(消)(费)(等)(进)(口)(需)(求)(强)(劲)(。商)(务)(部)(调)(查)(数)(据)(显)(示)(,我)(国)(居)(民)(对)(进)(口)(日)(用)(消)(费)(品)(需)(求)(强)(劲)(,家)(庭)(月)(收)(入)(超)(过)(2万)(元)(的)(消)(费)(者)(都)(曾)(购)(买)(进)(口)(商)(品)(。分)(产)(品)(来)(看)(,化)(妆)(品)(、母)(婴)(用)(品)(和)(钟)(表)(眼)(镜)(等)(进)(口)(需)(求)(较)(强)(,并)(且)(未)(来)(半)(年)(消)(费)(者)(增)(加)(购)(买)(的)(意)(愿)(也)(较)(为)(强)(烈)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,消)(费)(者)(对)(家)(居)(家)(装)(、电)(子)(产)(品)(进)(口)(意)(愿)(有)(所)(减)(弱)(,这)(与)(我)(国)(当)(前)(产)(业)(结)(构)(特)(征)(也)(较)(为)(一)(致)(。伴)(随)(我)(国)(产)(业)(升)(级)(,家)(居)(、电)(器)(产)(品)(竞)(争)(力)(明)(显)(提)(升)(,已)(经)(能)(够)(较)(好)(满)(足)(国)(内)(需)(求)(;然)(而)(,化)(妆)(品)(、母)(婴)(用)(品)(等)(产)(品)(,在)(品)(质)(、安)(全)(等)(方)(面)(,与)(国)(外)(知)(名)(品)(牌)(仍)(存)(在)(一)(定)(差)(距)(,进)(口)(潜)(力)(较)(大)(。
日)(用)(消)(费)(品)(之)(外)(,高)(质)(量)(医)(药)(品)(、医)(疗)(服)(务)(、教)(育)(文)(化)(等)(,也)(将)(是)(顺)(应)(居)(民)(消)(费)(升)(级)(趋)(势)(、扩)(大)(进)(口)(的)(重)(点)(领)(域)(。以)(医)(药)(医)(疗)(为)(例)(,这)(一)(问)(题)(关)(乎)(民)(生)(,然)(而)(我)(国)(部)(分)(重)(大)(疾)(病)(治)(愈)(率)(仍)(然)(较)(低)(,以)(恶)(性)(肿)(瘤)(为)(典)(型)(代)(表)(。国)(际)(对)(比)(可)(以)(发)(现)(,我)(国)(发)(病)(率)(最)(高)(的)(肺)(癌)(、胃)(癌)(、结)(直)(肠)(癌)(和)(肝)(癌)(,生)(存)(率)(普)(遍)(低)(于)(全)(球)(水)(平)(,与)(我)(国)(抗)(癌)(药)(研)(发)(相)(对)(落)(后)(、进)(口)(抗)(癌)(药)(难)(以)(负)(担)(有)(关)(。近)(年)(来)(,我)(国)(医)(药)(行)(业)(对)(外)(开)(放)(步)(伐)(不)(断)(加)(快)(,进)(口)(药)(品)(数)(目)(明)(显)(增)(加)(、流)(程)(明)(显)(简)(化)(。今)(年)(5月)(起)(,我)(国)(正)(式)(实)(施)(进)(口)(药)(品)(零)(关)(税)(。未)(来)(,医)(药)(、医)(疗)(领)(域)(或)(将)(进)(一)(步)(扩)(大)(开)(放)(,加)(快)(引)(进)(国)(外)(先)(进)(医)(药)(产)(品)(和)(医)(疗)(技)(术)(,改)(善)(民)(生)(福)(利)(。
增)(加)(稀)(缺)(资)(源)(进)(口)(,注)(重)(来)(源)(多)(元)(化)(,关)(注)(“一)(带)(一)(路)(”
加)(大)(战)(略)(性)(资)(源)(和)(农)(产)(品)(进)(口)(,为)(产)(业)(升)(级)(释)(放)(要)(素)(
能)(源)(消)(费)(清)(洁)(化)(要)(求)(下)(,我)(国)(油)(气)(清)(洁)(能)(源)(供)(需)(缺)(口)(或)(继)(续)(扩)(大)(,进)(口)(有)(望)(进)(一)(步)(增)(长)(。近)(十)(余)(年)(,伴)(随)(经)(济)(快)(速)(增)(长)(,我)(国)(对)(原)(油)(和)(天)(然)(气)(清)(洁)(能)(源)(需)(求)(快)(速)(增)(长)(;2017年)(,我)(国)(已)(成)(为)(世)(界)(第)(一)(大)(原)(油)(进)(口)(国)(和)(第)(二)(大)(天)(然)(气)(进)(口)(国)(。然)(而)(,油)(气)(资)(源)(不)(足)(的)(限)(制)(下)(,我)(国)(油)(气)(供)(需)(缺)(口)(不)(断)(扩)(大)(,对)(外)(依)(存)(度)(持)(续)(提)(高)(,2016年)(我)(国)(原)(油)(对)(外)(依)(存)(度)(65.4%、天)(然)(气)(进)(口)(依)(赖)(度)(39%。未)(来)(一)(段)(时)(间)(,伴)(随)(经)(济)(结)(构)(转)(型)(升)(级)(、高)(耗)(能)(行)(业)(收)(缩)(,我)(国)(能)(源)(消)(费)(增)(速)(有)(望)(放)(缓)(至)(3%以)(下)(;而)(能)(源)(消)(费)(清)(洁)(化)(要)(求)(下)(,油)(气)(资)(源)(需)(求)(有)(望)(维)(持)(较)(高)(增)(速)(,进)(口)(需)(求)(也)(将)(随)(之)(扩)(大)(,突)(破)(国)(内)(要)(素)(供)(给)(瓶)(颈)(。
铁)(矿)(石)(、铜)(矿)(和)(铝)(土)(矿)(等)(支)(柱)(性)(矿)(产)(资)(源)(,以)(及)(高)(纯)(石)(英)(等)(新)(兴)(产)(业)(需)(要)(的)(矿)(产)(资)(源)(,进)(口)(需)(求)(或)(持)(续)(扩)(大)(。伴)(随)(工)(业)(化)(快)(速)(推)(进)(,我)(国)(对)(大)(宗)(矿)(物)(原)(料)(需)(求)(随)(之)(增)(长)(,截)(至)(2015年)(,我)(国)(铁)(铬)(锰)(等)(黑)(色)(金)(属)(矿)(、铜)(铝)(镍)(等)(有)(色)(金)(属)(矿)(等)(战)(略)(支)(柱)(性)(矿)(产)(,消)(费)(量)(全)(球)(领)(先)(。然)(而)(,我)(国)(这)(类)(矿)(产)(资)(源)(严)(重)(不)(足)(,大)(量)(依)(赖)(进)(口)(,其)(中)(铁)(、铬)(、锰)(、铜)(等)(对)(外)(依)(赖)(度)(更)(是)(超)(过)(70%。未)(来)(10-15年)(,伴)(随)(经)(济)(结)(构)(转)(型)(升)(级)(,传)(统)(矿)(产)(需)(求)(增)(长)(或)(将)(放)(缓)(,但)(国)(内)(外)(品)(位)(差)(异)(较)(大)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,进)(口)(需)(求)(或)(继)(续)(扩)(大)(。此)(外)(,铍)(、锶)(、高)(纯)(石)(英)(、优)(质)(石)(墨)(等)(矿)(产)(主)(要)(用)(于)(计)(算)(机)(、电)(子)(等)(新)(兴)(行)(业)(,铅)(、锂)(等)(金)(属)(主)(要)(用)(于)(化)(工)(和)(交)(通)(行)(业)(等)(,未)(来)(进)(口)(需)(求)(或)(将)(随)(行)(业)(发)(展)(而)(快)(速)(增)(长)(。
部)(分)(土)(地)(密)(集)(型)(农)(产)(品)(,也)(是)(扩)(大)(进)(口)(的)(重)(点)(对)(象)(,满)(足)(居)(民)(消)(费)(升)(级)(需)(求)(的)(同)(时)(,节)(约)(国)(内)(土)(地)(资)(源)(。我)(国)(“人)(多)(地)(少)(水)(缺)(”的)(基)(本)(国)(情)(,要)(求)(实)(施)(“劳)(力)(换)(土)(地)(”战)(略)(,即)(根)(据)(比)(较)(优)(势)(种)(植)(和)(出)(口)(劳)(动)(密)(集)(型)(农)(产)(品)(,同)(时)(加)(大)(土)(地)(密)(集)(型)(、生)(产)(集)(约)(化)(程)(度)(较)(高)(的)(农)(产)(品)(进)(口)((主)(要)(是)(油)(籽)(、饲)(料)(作)(物)(等)()。2004年)(以)(来)(,我)(国)(农)(产)(品)(进)(口)(平)(均)(增)(速)(16.1%,连)(续)(13年)(为)(净)(进)(口)(。分)(产)(品)(来)(看)(,大)(豆)(、食)(用)(植)(物)(油)(、棉)(花)(、玉)(米)(等)(,是)(农)(产)(品)(贸)(易)(逆)(差)(的)(主)(要)(来)(源)(,这)(与)(国)(内)(外)(种)(植)(成)(本)(、效)(益)(差)(异)(有)(关)(。未)(来)(一)(段)(时)(间)(,我)(国)(一)(方)(面)(要)(在)(满)(足)(基)(本)(粮)(食)(自)(给)(的)(前)(提)(下)(,加)(大)(部)(分)(土)(地)(密)(集)(型)(农)(产)(品)(进)(口)(,另)(一)(方)(面)(,还)(要)(适)(当)(增)(加)(部)(分)(水)(产)(品)(、热)(带)(水)(果)(等)(特)(色)(农)(产)(品)(进)(口)(,满)(足)(居)(民)(消)(费)(升)(级)(需)(求)(。
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