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科研经费年投入1.2万亿

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月21日 09:40:46
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(  中)(国)(网)(事)(:一)(年)(1.2万)(亿)(元)(研)(发)(投)(入)(科)(技)(成)(果)(转)(化)(率)(仅)(10%—透)(视)(科)(研)(经)(费)(使)(用)(怪)(现)(象)(  新)(华)(网)(北)(京)(12月)(22日)(电)(2013年)(我)(国)(全)(社)(会)(研)(发)(投)(入)(已)(达)(1.2万)(亿)(元)(,其)(中)(财)(政)(科)(研)(经)(费)(5000亿)(元)(,居)(世)(界)(前)(列)(。但)(科)(研)(领)(域)(乱)(象)(丛)(生)(:科)(研)(风)(气)(“浮)(躁)(化)(”、项)(目)(申)(请)(“行)(政)(化)(”、经)(费)(落)(实)(“功)(利)(化)(”……不)(仅)(大)(大)(影)(响)(科)(研)(活)(动)(,也)(使)(科)(研)(投)(入)(效)(率)(低)(下)(。  科)(研)(经)(费)(按)(“牌)(子)(、帽)(子)(、位)(子)(”分)(配)(  武)(汉)(科)(技)(大)(学)(文)(法)(学)(院)(教)(授)(黄)(涛)(说)(,有)(些)(科)(研)(人)(员)(拿)(到)(课)(题)(经)(费)(后)(,写)(一)(篇)(论)(文)(就)(能)(交)(账)(,还)(能)(评)(职)(称)(,“一)(举)(两)(得)(”。华)(中)(科)(技)(大)(学)(新)(闻)(评)(论)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(赵)(振)(宇)(说)(,有)(的)(学)(者)(同)(一)(本)(书)(换)(几)(个)(名)(字)(出)(版)(,就)(可)(当)(成)(不)(同)(的)(课)(题)(成)(果)(,让)(人)(不)(齿)(。  “官)(大)(学)(问)(大)(,权)(大)(经)(费)(多)(”也)(成)(为)(普)(遍)(性)(问)(题)(。科)(研)(经)(费)(七)(成)(按)(照)(牌)(子)(、帽)(子)(、位)(子)(分)(配)(,三)(成)(“撒)(了)(胡)(椒)(面)(”。能)(够)(拿)(到)(自)(然)(科)(学)(奖)(一)(等)(奖)(、二)(等)(奖)(的)(大)(多)(是)(“学)(术)(大)(佬)(”,少)(有)(年)(轻)(人)(。黄)(涛)(说)(,一)(些)(年)(轻)(人)(为)(了)(争)(取)(课)(题)(,只)(能)(“拉)(大)(旗)(扯)(虎)(皮)(”,挂)(上)(领)(导)(大)(名)(领)(衔)(申)(报)(。华)(中)(科)(技)(大)(学)(公)(共)(管)(理)(学)(院)(教)(授)(钟)(书)(华)(说)(,大)(学)(体)(制)(强)(调)(行)(政)(治)(校)(,因)(为)(资)(源)(配)(置)(、决)(策)(权)(都)(与)(行)(政)(权)(力)(有)(关)(,所)(以)(有)(些)(老)(师)(“搞)(成)(果)(为)(了)(当)(官)(,当)(了)(官)(成)(果)(更)(多)(”。  华)(中)(师)(范)(大)(学)(一)(位)(教)(授)(说)(,有)(些)(院)(士)(用)(兼)(职)(的)(方)(式)(到)(学)(校)(当)(“买)(办)(学)(者)(”,利)(用)(名)(头)(垄)(断)(项)(目)(资)(源)(和)(大)(笔)(经)(费)(,再)(将)(具)(体)(项)(目)(“分)(包)(”给)(“小)(毛)(刺)(”学)(者)(,自)(己)(坐)(收)(大)(头)(。  在)(经)(济)(欠)(发)(达)(地)(区)(,非)(“牛)(校)(”等)(因)(素)(制)(约)(了)(学)(校)(的)(整)(体)(发)(展)(。“国)(家)(自)(然)(科)(学)(基)(金)(,我)(们)(全)(省)(能)(拿)(到)(的)(,还)(不)(如)(一)(个)(浙)(江)(大)(学)(。一)(些)(科)(研)(项)(目)(多)(的)(院)(校)("拿)(钱)(买)(人)(",造)(成)(我)(校)(人)(才)(大)(量)(流)(失)(,逐)(渐)(被)(边)(缘)(化)(。”东)(北)(某)(大)(学)(一)(位)(处)(长)(说)(。  科)(研)(围)(着)(课)(题)(、部)(门)(转)(  科)(研)(风)(气)(“浮)(躁)(化)(”、项)(目)(申)(请)(“行)(政)(化)(”、经)(费)(落)(实)(“功)(利)(化)(”等)(问)(题)(大)(大)(影)(响)(了)(我)(国)(的)(科)(研)(活)(动)(成)(效)(。中)(国)(科)(学)(技)(术)(发)(展)(战)(略)(研)(究)(院)(的)(统)(计)(显)(示)(,我)(国)(有)(320多)(万)(名)(研)(发)(人)(员)(,居)(世)(界)(首)(位)(,但)(科)(技)(创)(新)(能)(力)(仅)(排)(世)(界)(第)(19位)(;我)(国)(国)(际)(科)(学)(论)(文)(数)(量)(已)(居)(世)(界)(第)(二)(位)(,本)(国)(人)(发)(明)(专)(利)(申)(请)(量)(和)(授)(权)(量)(分)(别)(居)(世)(界)(首)(位)(和)(第)(二)(位)(,但)(能)(“赚)(钱)(”的)(却)(很)(少)(,科)(技)(成)(果)(转)(化)(率)(仅)(为)(10%左)(右)(。  中)(国)(科)(学)(技)(术)(发)(展)(战)(略)(研)(究)(院)(副)(院)(长)(王)(宏)(广)(表)(示)(,以)(纺)(织)(服)(装)(行)(业)(为)(例)(,我)(国)(专)(利)(占)(全)(球)(80%,但)(利)(润)(排)(名)(前)(20的)(专)(利)(一)(个)(也)(没)(有)(。而)(在)(医)(药)(行)(业)(,我)(国)(九)(成)(是)(仿)(制)(药)(,从)(1949年)(到)(2008年)(,50年)(来)(仿)(制)(药)(获)(得)(的)(利)(润)(还)(不)(如)(国)(外)(一)(个)(新)(药)(利)(润)(多)(。  一)(位)(受)(访)(企)(业)(家)(说)(,近)(8年)(来)(,我)(国)(科)(研)(资)(金)(投)(入)(已)(经)(接)(近)(3万)(亿)(元)(,但)(市)(场)(上)(叫)(得)(响)(的)(新)(成)(品)(、新)(技)(术)(仍)(然)(太)(少)(。每)(次)(看)(到)(科)(技)(、教)(育)(主)(管)(部)(门)(拿)(着)(厚)(厚)(一)(摞)(项)(目)(申)(报)(表)(,不)(禁)(想)(问)(:这)(么)(多)(项)(目)(你)(们)(管)(得)(了)(管)(得)(好)(吗)(?  一)(方)(面)(,科)(研)(活)(动)(的)(“论)(文)(导)(向)(”使)(得)(科)(研)(成)(果)(以)(发)(表)(论)(文)(作)(为)(主)(要)(衡)(量)(指)(标)(,成)(果)(能)(否)(转)(化)(不)(受)(重)(视)(;另)(一)(方)(面)(,“缺)(少)(产)(权)(保)(护)(”“立)(项)(脱)(离)(市)(场)(”“重)(立)(项)(、轻)(评)(测)(”等)(问)(题)(,也)(使)(科)(研)(行)(为)(“功)(利)(化)(”“浮)(躁)(化)(”。  南)(京)(某)(大)(学)(一)(位)(副)(院)(长)(说)(,“300多)(万)(科)(研)(大)(军)(写)(论)(文)(,仅)(有)(万)(分)(之)(几)(的)(科)(研)(经)(费)(用)(来)(做)(产)(品)(。”科)(研)(不)(是)(围)(绕)(市)(场)(转)(,而)(是)(围)(着)(经)(费)(转)(、围)(着)(部)(门)(转)(。这)(种)(扭)(曲)(的)(体)(制)(是)(困)(扰)(科)(研)(创)(新)(的)(根)(本)(原)(因)(。  国)(务)(院)(国)(有)(重)(点)(金)(融)(机)(构)(监)(事)(会)(主)(席)(于)(学)(军)(认)(为)(,科)(研)(经)(费)(使)(用)(实)(质)(是)(财)(政)(分)(配)(问)(题)(。由)(各)(级)(财)(政)(集)(中)(资)(金)(,然)(后)(分)(拨)(给)(各)(个)(部)(门)(,再)(向)(下)(撒)(胡)(椒)(面)(的)(做)(法)(,不)(仅)(浪)(费)(低)(效)(,而)(且)(容)(易)(腐)(败)(。  “以)(产)(品)(为)(导)(向)(、去)(行)(政)(化)(”或)(可)(用)(活)(科)(研)(经)(费)(  针)(对)(科)(研)(经)(费)(使)(用)(效)(率)(不)(高)(等)(问)(题)(,专)(家)(建)(议)(科)(研)(立)(项)(应)(贴)(近)(市)(场)(,以)(产)(品)(为)(导)(向)(评)(价)(科)(研)(,最)(终)(实)(现)(经)(费)(管)(理)(去)(行)(政)(化)(等)(。  于)(学)(军)(认)(为)(,我)(国)(2013年)(财)(政)(科)(研)(经)(费)(高)(达)(5000亿)(元)(。如)(果)(停)(止)(条)(块)(分)(配)(财)(政)(经)(费)(的)(做)(法)(,可)(以)(节)(省)(不)(少)(钱)(。  王)(宏)(广)(说)(,要)(切)(实)(改)(变)(创)(新)(驱)(动)(与)(经)(济)(发)(展)(“小)(马)(拉)(大)(车)(”的)(关)(系)(,就)(要)(杜)(绝)(“盲)(目)(跟)(踪)(、会)(什)(么)(做)(什)(么)(”的)(现)(象)(。科)(技)(创)(新)(要)(紧)(紧)(围)(绕)(经)(济)(社)(会)(发)(展)(的)(重)(大)(技)(术)(需)(求)(,科)(研)(项)(目)(应)(该)(来)(自)(市)(场)(和)(企)(业)(,经)(济)(社)(会)(发)(展)(需)(要)(什)(么)(就)(做)(什)(么)(。  钟)(书)(华)(建)(议)(把)(学)(术)(权)(力)(和)(行)(政)(权)(力)(分)(开)(。一)(方)(面)(,在)(项)(目)(申)(报)(、经)(费)(分)(配)(环)(节)(减)(少)(行)(政)(官)(员)(、“学)(阀)(”“学)(霸)(”的)(干)(扰)(;另)(一)(方)(面)(,变)(“以)(论)(文)(为)(导)(向)(”为)(“以)(产)(品)(为)(导)(向)(”,加)(强)(科)(研)(与)(经)(济)(的)(关)(联)(度)(。  中)(国)(机)(器)(人)(产)(业)(联)(盟)(董)(事)(长)(、新)(松)(机)(器)(人)(总)(裁)(曲)(道)(奎)(建)(议)(,应)(把)(分)(散)(的)(项)(目)(补)(贴)(改)(为)(建)(设)(公)(共)(、公)(益)(性)(研)(发)(平)(台)(、测)(试)(平)(台)(、创)(新)(平)(台)(、检)(测)(平)(台)(。公)(共)(平)(台)(大)(家)(都)(用)(,也)(是)(一)(种)(市)(场)(机)(制)(。财)(政)(的)(钱)(支)(持)(企)(业)(创)(新)(,应)(该)(变)(“前)(补)(贴)(、前)(支)(持)(”为)(“后)(补)(贴)(、后)(支)(持)(”,使)(没)(有)(实)(力)(的)(企)(业)(不)(敢)(拿)(,有)(实)(力)(的)(企)(业)(完)(成)(项)(目)(后)(心)(安)(理)(得)(地)(拿)(,起)(到)(二)(次)(调)(节)(作)(用)(。  南)(京)(工)(业)(大)(学)(经)(管)(学)(院)(副)(院)(长)(王)(冀)(宁)(指)(出)(,要)(谨)(防)(改)(革)(在)(执)(行)(中)(变)(相)(走)(样)(。从)(发)(达)(国)(家)(经)(验)(看)(,必)(须)(形)(成)(管)(钱)(、分)(钱)(、监)(督)(三)(方)(分)(离)(的)(体)(制)(,彻)(底)(改)(变)(政)(府)(部)(门)(“既)(当)(运)(动)(员)(又)(当)(裁)(判)(员)(”状)(况)(,同)(时)(要)(防)(止)(改)(革)(成)(了)(近)(亲)(繁)(殖)(、继)(续)(垄)(断)(资)(源)(的)(手)(段)(。在)(经)(费)(使)(用)(上)(,引)(入)(社)(会)(监)(督)(;在)(成)(果)(考)(核)(上)(,以)(产)(生)(的)(经)(济)(效)(益)(为)(依)(据)(。(记)(者)(丁)(静)(吴)(晶)(晶)(邓)(华)(宁)(许)(祖)(华)(俞)(俭)(赵)(梦)(卓)()
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